Bachelor of Pharmacy Syllabus
COURSE CODECOURSE NAMECREDITS
Remedial Mathematics or Remedial Biology
Algebra : Equations reducible to quadratics, simultaneous equations (linear and quadratic), Determinants, properties of solution of simultaneous equations by Cramer's rule, matrices, definition of special kinds of matrices, arithmetic operations on matrices, inverse of a matrix, solution of simultaneous equations by matrices, pharmaceutical applications of determinants and matrices.
Measures of Central Value:Objectives and pre-requisites of an ideal, measure, mean, mode and median.
Trigonometry:Measurement of angle, T-ratios, addition, subtraction and transformation formulae, T -ratios of multiple, submultiple, allied and certain angles. Application of logarithms in pharmaceutical computations.
Analytical Plans Geometry:Certain co-ordinates, distance between two points, area of triangle, a locus of point, straight line, slope and intercept from, double-intercept form, normal (perpendicular form), slope-point and two point form, general equation of first degree.
Differential: Limits and functions, definition of differential coefficient, differentiation of standard functions, including function of a function (Chain rule). Differentiation of implicit functions, logarithmic differentiation. Integral: Integration as inverse of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard forms, integration by parts, substitution and partial fractions, formal evaluation of definite integrals.
Methods of classification of plants.
Plant Cell:It's structure and non-living inclusions; mitosis and meiosis; different types of plant tissues and their functions.
Morphology and histology of root, stem, bark, wood, leaf, flower fruit and seed. Modification of root and stem.
General Survey of Animal Kingdom; Structure and life history of parasites as illustrated by amoeba, entamoeba, trypanosoma, plasmodium, taenia, ascaris, schistosoma, oxyuris, and ancylostoma.
General Structure and life history of insects like mosquito, housefly, mites and silkworm.04
Pharmaceutical Analysis – I:
Significance of quantitative analysis in quality control, Different techniques of analysis, Preliminaries and definitions, Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy. Fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards.
Acid Base Titrations: Acid base concepts, Role of solvent, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Commonion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hesselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators,•' Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, mixed indicators, Polyprotic system, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titration, applications in assay of Hl04,NaOH, CaC03 etc. .
Oxidation Reduction Titrations : Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate; titanous chloride and Sodium 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol.
Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions, Solubility products, Effect of acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, Indicators, Gaylussac method; Mohrs method, Volhard's method and Fajan's method.
Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques, Solubility products; The colloidal state, Supersaturation co-precipitation, Postprecipitation, Digestional washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crocibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants.
- 1. Conners K.A., A Text book of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Wiley Inter-science.
- 2. Beckett A.H. &Stenlake J.B., Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol. I&II. The AtherdenPress of the University of London.
- 3. Alexeyev V., Quantitative Analysis, CBS Publishers & Distributors.
- 4. Vogel's, Text Book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, ELBS UK.
- 5. Varma R.M., Analytical Chemistry, CBS Publishers.
- 6. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry – I(Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry):
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity and identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia.
Acids and Bases: Buffers, Water. Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents, Cathartics. Major Intra-and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy.
Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance: Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects.
Topical Agents: Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives. Gases and Vapours: Oxygen, Anesthetics and Respiratory stimulants. Dental Products: Dentifrice, Anti-caries agents. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy
Miscellaneous Agents: Sclerosing agents, expectorants, emetics, poisons and antidotes, sedatives etc. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry. Anti-oxidants, preservatives, filter aids, adsorbents, diluents, excipients, suspending agents, colorants etc.
Inorganic Radio Pharmaceuticals: Nuclear radio pharmaceuticals, Reactions, Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, measurement of activity, clinical applications and dosage, hazards and precautions.
- 1. Block, J.H. Roche, E, Soine, T and Wilson, C., Inorganic, Medicinal & PharmaceuticalChemistry, Lea & Febiger.
- 2. Discher, C.A., et.al Modern Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Waveland Press.
- 3. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
- 4. Atherden L.M., Bentley & Drivers' Text Book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Oxford UniversityPress, London.
Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy. Sources of drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs. Classification of drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs.
Plant taxonomy : Study of the following families with special reference to medicinally important plants – Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of crude drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Plant hormones and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. .
Quality control of crude drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
An introduction to active constituents of drugs: their Isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of following
- a) Carbohydrates and derived products: Agar, Guar gum, Acacia, Honey, Isabgol, Pectin, Starch, Sterculia and Tragacanth.
- b) Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Cod~liver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat.
- 1. Kokate C.K., Gokhale AS, Gokhale SB, Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, NiraliPrakashan.
- 2. Kokate C.K., et al, Pharmacognosy, NiraliPrakashan, Pune.
- 3. Trease G.E., & Evans W.C., Evans, W.C., Pharmacognosy, BailliereTindall east Baorne, U.K.
- 4. Tyler V.E. et al, Pharmacognosy, Lea &Febiger, Philadelphia.
- 5. Wallis. T.E., Text Book of Pharmacognosy, J&A Churchill Ltd. London.
- 6. Nadkarni A.K., Indian MateriaMedica1-2, Popular Prakashan (P) Ltd. Bombay.
- 7. Medicinal Plants of India I&II, Indian council of Medical Reasearch, New Delhi.
- 8. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I&II, ICMR & RRL, Jammu.
Basic computer organization functionality computer codes computer classification Boolean algebra, primary storage, secondary storage devices, input-output devices, computer software, computer languages, operating system, business data processing concepts, data communication and networks and advances.
Planning the computer program, algorithm, flowcharts, and decision tables.
Writing simple programs in 'C', Numeric constants and variables. Arithmetic Expressions, Input & Output in 'C' Programs, conditional statements, implementing loops in programs, arrays, logical expressions, and control statements such as switch, break and continue functions, processing character strings, files in 'C'.
MS Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), Basic Database concept and classification, operations performed on database, using MS-Access. Internet Features.
Computer applications in Pharmaceutical and clinical studies.
- 1. Sinha, R.K., Computer Fundamentals, BPB Publications.
- 2. Raja Raman, V, Computer Programming in 'C', PHI Publication.
- 3. Hunt N & Shelley J., Computers and Common Sense, PHI Publication
Pharmaceutical Analysis I (P):
- 1. Standardization of analytical weights and calibration of volumetric apparatus.
- 2. Acid Base Titrations: Preparation and Standardization of acids and bases, official assayprocedures, e.g. boric acid etc.
- 3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations: Preparation & standardization of some redox titrates e.g.potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate etc. Some exercisesrelated to determinations of oxidizing & reducing agents.
- 4. Precipitation Titrations: Preparation and standardization of titrates like silver nitrate andammonium thiocyanate.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Inorganic Chemistry)(P):
- 1. To perform Limit Test of Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Heavy metal and Arsenic in the given sample.
- 2. Salt analysis.
- 3. Preparation of Compounds.
- 1. Morphological characteristics of plant families mentioned in theory.
- 2. Microscopic measurements of cells and Cell contents: Starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibres.
- 3. Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal number, vein-islet number, vein-termination number and palisade ratio.
- 4. Identification of crude drugs belonging to carbohydrates and lipids.
Computer Fundamentals (P):
Exercises based on the following are to be dealt:
- 1. Windows, Managing Windows, Working with Disk, Folders and Files
- 2. MS-Office (MS Word, MS Power Point, MS Excel)
- 3. Computer Operating System like DOS and Windows
- 4. Internet features (E-mail, Browser etc.)